Lawrence Armstrong



Professor and Director of the Human Performance Laboratory

Academic Degrees:

Ph.D., Human Bioenergetics, Ball State University, Human Performance Laboratory, 1983

M.Ed., Science Curriculum, University of Toledo, 1976

B.Ed., Science Curriculum (Biology), University of Toledo, 1971

Areas of Expertise:

Exercise & Heat

Physiology – Environmental

Exercise & Nutrition

Heat Acclimatization

Exertional Heat Illnesses

Sport Drinks

Fluid-Electrolyte Balance

Physical Performance



Presently in his 28th year as a professor in the Human Performance Laboratory. Research specialties include human fluid-electrolyte balance and assessment of hydration status; physiological responses to exercise; dietary intervention (i.e., sport drinks, low salt diets, glucose-electrolyte solutions); heat tolerance; effects of dehydration on physical performance; effects of mild dehydration on mood and cognitive performance; physiological responses to wearing uniforms; pharmacologic influences on thermoregulation and heat acclimatization as they apply to athletes, fire fighters, and military personnel.

Field studies: fluid-electrolyte balance in tennis players (Miami, FL), effects of flavoring on fluid consumption (Fort Benning, GA), heat exhaustion (Panama), heat stress monitors (Australia), heat illness (Texas), casualty rates at the Boston Marathon (Massachusetts), cooling of heatstroke patients after a summer road race (Falmouth, MA), effects of diuretic-induced dehydration on sprint running performance (Storrs, CT), observation of fluid-electrolyte and caloric turnover of cyclists during a 100-mile event in a 105F environment (Wichita Falls, TX), effects of dehydration on trail running performance (Storrs, CT), evaluation of sweat and sodium losses of elite male and female triathletes (E. Rutherford, NJ), evaluation of Ironman Triathletes at the finish line (Kona Hawaii, October 2012).

Personal Interests: (1) Effects of mild dehydration on cognitive performance and mood. (2) Changes of fluid balance and hydration biomarkers during pregnancy and lactation. (3) Effects of controlled dietary caffeine intake on fluid balance and physical performance in a hot environment. (4) Influence of fluid-electrolyte replacement beverages on prolonged exercise performance in a hot environment. (5) Novel indices of human hydration. (6) Thermoregulatory and physiological strain due to athletic uniforms. (7) Effects of modified drinking on human physiology and mood.

Holds joint appointments in the Department of Nutritional Sciences and in Physiology & Neurobiology.

Fellow, American College of Sports Medicine.

Editorial Board Member for the following journals: International Journal of Sports Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism, Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research (NSCA), Journal of Athletic Training (NATA).

Funded Research:

Effects of fluid composition on cycling performace in a warm environment

Thermoregulatory and physiological strain due to athletic uniforms.

Effects of controlled dietary caffeine intake on fluid-electrolyte balance, hydration, physiological & psychological measures during exercise-heat stress, and caffeine-withdrawal

Comparison of a fluid-electrolyte replacement beverage versus water: ergogenic properties

Assessing human hydration status

Effects of glycerol rehydration during exercise in the heat

Effects of a strong antioxidant on maximal aerobic power

NIH Minority Student Bridges Grant involving Howard University, Washington D.C. and University of Rhode Island

Effects of mild dehydration on cognitive function and mood state

Hydration biomarkers in pregnant women

Selected Publications/Presentations:

Armstrong LE. Johnson EC, McKenzie AL, Munoz CX. An Empirical Method to Determine Inadequacy of Dietary Water. Nutrition (Elsevier) 32(1):79-82, 2016.

Armstrong LE, Lee EC, Casa D, Johnson EC, Ganio MS, McDermott B, Vingren J, Oh HM, Williamson KH. Exertional Hyponatremia and Serum Sodium Change During Ultraendurance Cycling. International Journal of Sports Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism 27(2):139-147, 2017.

McKenzie AL, Munoz CX, Ellis LA, Perrier E, Guelinckx I, Klein A, Kavouras SA, Armstrong LE. Urine Color as an indicator of Urine Concentration in Pregnant and Lactating Women. European Journal of Nutrition, 2015. Peer reviewed, online open access. doi:10.1007/s00394-015-1085-9

Armstrong LE, Johnson EC, Ganio MS, Judelson DA, Vingren JL, Kupchak BR, Kunces LJ, Muñoz CX, McKenzie AL, Williamson KH. Effective body water and body mass changes during summer ultra-endurance road cycling.  Journal of Sports Sciences 33(2):125-35, 2015.  

Armstrong LE, Kraemer WJ. ACSM’s Research Methods. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Publishers, in press, 2015.

Armstrong LE, Johnson EC, McKenzie AL, Munoz CX. Interpreting Common Hydration Biomarkers on the Basis of Solute and Water Excretion. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 67(3):249-53, 2013.

Armstrong LE, Ganio MS, Casa DJ, Lee EC, McDermott BP, Klau JF, Jimenez L, Le Bellego L, Chevillotte E,. Lieberman HR. Mild dehydration affects mood in healthy young women. Journal of Nutrition 142(2):382-388, 2012.

Armstrong LE, Klau JF, Ganio MS, McDermott BP, Yeargin SW, Lee EC, Maresh CM. Accumulation of 2H2O in plasma and eccrine sweat during exercise-heat stress. European Journal of Applied Physiology & Occupational Physiology 108:477-482, 2010.

Armstrong LE, Johnson EC, Casa DJ, Ganio MS, McDermott B, Yamamoto LM, Lopez RM, Emmanuel H. The American Football Uniform: Uncompensable Heat Stress and Hyperthermic Exhaustion. Journal of Athletic Training 45(2):117-127, 2010.

Armstrong, L.E. Assessing hydration status: The elusive gold standard. Journal American College of Nutrition 26(5):575S-584S, 2007.

Armstrong LE, Casa DJ, Maresh CM, and Ganio MS. Caffeine, Fluid-Electrolyte Balance, Temperature Regulation, and Exercise Performance. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews 35(3): 135-140, 2007.

Book Editor and Author/Coauthor. Exertional Heat Illnesses. Human Kinetics Publishers, April 2003, 275 pages.


Lifesaving Education Award, Korey Stringer Institute, 2016

Texas A&M University, Department of Kinesiology, Scholar Award. Distinguished Lecture Series, College Station, TX. March, 2016.

Outstanding Research Award, Neag School of Education, May 2005

Honor Award for Exemplary Service to the N E Chapter of American College of Sports Medicine, Boxborough MA, November 1996.

Received Department of the Army Achievement Medal for Civilian Service, Heat Research Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA, June 1990.

Received National Strength and Conditioning Association’s Presidential Award twice. Second award, May 1993. First award, May 1989.

Aerospace Medical Association, Environmental Science Award, Nashville, TN, April 1986.


Past President, American College of Sports Medicine, 2015-2016

Elected, National Board of Trustees Representative, American College of Sports Medicine, 2007-2009

Appointed – National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, Committee on Military Nutrition Research, Washington D.C., 1998-2001

Appointed – Institutional Review Board for Human Studies, University of Connecticut, 2004 – 2006.

Scientific Advisory Board Member, Danone Research, France. 2008-present

Appointed to the National ACSM Diversity Task Force. Purpose: to increase representation of under-represented minority members. 2004 – present

A new proposed guidance system for beverage consumption in the United States

In the News:

Symptoms of Dehydration –

What you Should Know About Drinking Water –

Milk and Other Surprising Ways to Stay Hydrated

Demystifying Hydration—and How Much Water We Really Need

NPR Web interview: How much water do you need?

Cranky Today? Even Mild Dehydration Can Alter Our Moods

Contact Information
Phone860 486–2647
Mailing Address2095 Hillside Rd, Unit 1110 Storrs, CT 06269
Office LocationGampel Pavilion 205
Coursesekinall, faculty, exsci